Wednesday, February 5, 2020

The current climate of financial constraints will have a dramatic Essay

The current climate of financial constraints will have a dramatic impact on investigating crime Examine this assertion - Essay Example The recession has affected every segment of society especially the working class. When people are without work for a prolonged period of time, even honest citizens sometimes turn to crime to pay their bills mostly in urban areas. In such situations, the resources of the crime prevention agencies are usually focused on serious or violent crimes, and they usually ignore lesser offences such as burglaries due the scarcity of manpower and other resources such as cars for patrolling, or even clerical personnel for filing in report or preparing the paperwork to present the cases for court proceedings. In the absence of police personnel on the streets, minor arguments may escalate to shootouts or stabbings because the presence of police usually acts as a deterrent and prevents the situation from escalating. Other crimes such as auto thefts, shoplifting, provoked and aggravated assault, property crime, gang wars, murders, domestic battery, aggravated burglary, fraud, rape and kidnapping all are on the increase due to the cutbacks in police budgets. Besides having an adequate number of personnel, other things that are essential for effective policing are vehicles, monitoring and tracking equipment (Moro, 2012). Computer systems for maintaining records and other paperwork. Funds are also needed to hire additional civilian personnel on a temporary basis or to pay off informants who are an essential part of any police network. The police department needs forensics laboratories, equipment and chemicals and qualified staff to man these laboratories. Then too offenders who are apprehended need facilities such as beds in the lock ups and prisons, before they are released on bail, or if they are not released on bail they do require other facilities such as food, medicine and police personnel for keeping a watch over these prisoners so that they do not riot and kill each

Monday, January 27, 2020

Peace And Stability In Afghanistan Politics Essay

Peace And Stability In Afghanistan Politics Essay Even after almost eight years of international communitys efforts in Afghanistan the instability and turbulence has increased rather than abated. Not only has Afghanistan seen ever increasing levels of violence and loss of life the virus of instability and culture of violence has also spread across the Durand line with hardly any silver line on the horizon. A deadly insurgency, higher opium production, increasing civilian casualties, rampant corruption, an unstable neighbourhood and an uncertain political future remain the defining features of the complex and combustible situation that obtains in Afghanistan. Much of the initial euphoria generated after the fall of Taliban in 2001 has dissipated and those advances made in the fields of education and womens rights have been overshadowed. The prospects for preventing Afghanistan from being sucked into this whirlpool of chaos appear bleaker than ever.  [1]   2. Americas Af-Pak policy which was announced in end of March 2009, needs to be scrutinised to gauge its progress and success or otherwise. The main pillars of this strategy were based on not only in increase of force levels but also on increase of the resources devoted to economic development and coordination among international donors building Afghan governing structures primarily at local level reforming the Afghan government expanding and reforming the Afghan security forces and trying to improve Pakistans efforts to curb militant activity on its soil. The strategy also included negotiations with Taliban figures that were willing to enter the political process. After the Presidential election there is a need to again review the security, governance and development and aid structures and delivery mechanisms. 3. Major factor impacting the situation in Afghanistan is the continued resurgence of Taliban due to a host of contextual factors. The Taliban is estimated to have a permanent presence in 72 per cent of Afghanistan; its hold being strang not only in its bastions of the South but also in the East, where it literally runs a parallel government. Moreover the insurgency is spreading in a manner in which it has begun to ring the capital city of Kabul, with three of the four main roads leading to Kabul being rendered ensafe for Afghan or International travel. Successes against the Taliban, whether military or of winning hearts and minds have been limited as the Taliban appear to be striking at will with lethal forcw and is increasingly successful in the propaganda war. 4. Governance is another area where the noramal populace has been disillusioned with current dispensation. Endemic corruption plaguing much of the government machinery, especially the police and judiciary, both of which effect the evreryday life of the common man, has undermined credibility of the elected government and helped build up a degree of local support which stems more out of the Talibans ability to fill in the governance vacuum as opposed to ideological support for their cause. 5. Developmental aid has been delivered to Afganisthan in vast quantities but it is not visible on the ground. Fruits of this aid have yet to be tasted by the common people. Bonn process was followed by London Compact and there is an Afghan National Development Strategy (ANDS) for 15 years ahead but the timelines and benchmarks outlined in the same have not been adhered to. And the economic aid promised to realize the ANDS has also not been delivered whereas there is a massive spending by the NATO and Coalition forces to the tune of about US $20 billion a month. 6. How can, therefore, the international community improve on the delivery mechanisms and implementation measures? This remains one of the key questions in the current conundrum of security and development complicated further by weak governance. Surge indevelopment and aid funds and personnel planned as part of the Af-Pak strategy may help but some of the contextual core issues would yet need to be addressed before a positive outcome could be expected. 7. Looking at a wider perspective, how do the regional stake holders view the Afghan imbroglio? How can their varying perceptions be reconciled for the cause of common good? 8. Further, the presence of safe havens in Pakistans lawless frontier regions have played a seminal role in sustaining the insurgency in Afghanistan and fuelling instability in Pakistan, thus making it impossible to visualize a solution to the Afghan quagmire in isolation. 9. Given the above background what could be alternative future scenarios in Afghanistan say in next 4 to 5 years time and 8 to 10 years time keeping in mind the trends and drivers and possible triggers? Based on the emerging scenarios what should be the international communitys policy and strategy choices to ensure a favourable outcome? A broad range of critical issues affecting the Afghan environment need to be examined before a determination as to how to proceed further can be made. 10. Broadly, therefore, the seminar on peace and stability in Afghanistan and the way ahead is built around four themes of security, governance and examination of likely future scenarios and offering recommendations for policy and strategy choices which can be made now so as to move towards a better and brighter future for Afghanistan and in effect for rest of the international community. METHODOLOGY Statement of Problem 11. To analyze the effects of likely political instability in Afghanistan post withdrawal of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and its implications for India and policies that India needs to adopt to deal with this problem. Justification of Study 12. United States is increasing getting impatient in the affairs of Afghanistan wherein its policies are not delivering the desired results. It is likely to reduce its foot prints in that country and has accordingly set a deadline for withdrawal of ISAF. 13. The goal of US in Afghanistan is to defeat Al Qaeda and deny them the bases in that country, so as to improve its own homeland security. As per US, achievement of this goal is not dependent on creating an environment of political reconciliation in Afghanistan, which is difficult and time consuming. Rather its goal can be achieved by entering into an agreement with one entity: Taliban, who may agree to keep Al Qaeda out in exchange of returning back to power. Hypothesis 14. The return of Taliban or any civil war post de-induction of ISAF would hurt India dearly. India would prefer a sovereign, democratic secular Afghanistan which is not under the influence of powers inimical to our interests. 15. Therefore, India must ensure that the world community does not abandon Afghanistan at this crucial juncture and continue to provide for its political reconciliation and rehabilitation. In this regard, deployment of UN sponsored security forces with a much larger agenda than the ISAF is looked into, so as to allow the country to become strong both politically and economically. Methods of Data Collection 16. The study is primarily based on information gathered from books written by prominent Indian, foreign authors as well as information available on the internet. There has also been an attempt by me to analyse the events as they have unfolded and suggest possible options and own responses. Other sources of information are articles written in Indian, Pakistani, Western newspapers and news services such as the CNN and BBC as well as some defence journals. A bibliography of the sources is appended at the end of the text. Afghanistan being a very current topic has undergone a series of ups and downs during the course of my preparation of the dissertation. The Bonn Agreement is very relevant in todays context and is also attached as an appendix. Scope 17. The study will be covered under the following heads:- Chapter I Introduction Chapter II Geo strategic importance of Afghanistan to India Strategic location of Afghanistan Key to Energy Security Pakistans desire of achieving strategic depth by having control over Afghanistans polity Chapter III Brief history of Afghanistan post 9/11 Defeat of Taliban and set up of new Government Role of Pakistan in combating terrorism Chapter IV : Present imbroglio in Afghanistan. Failure of US policies in Afghanistan Growing frustration amongst US and NATO forces Poor governance by Karzai and growth of Taliban Chapter V : Likely Future Scenarios and Implications for India Withdrawal of US forces and re emergence of Taliban Depletion of US footprint and renewed violence Pakistan getting foothold in Afghanistan and involvement of Al Qaida in Kashmir Indian involvement reduced with a hostile government in Afghanistan Chapter VII Options Available To India Make efforts to ensure continuous presence of International security force in Afghanistan Involving UN in peace establishment in Afghanistan Continuing support to government in Afghanistan by undertaking rebuilding projects Chapter VIII : Conclusion. CHAPTER II BRIEF HISTORY OF AFGHANISTAN POST 9/11 OP Enduring Freedom On September 20, 2001, in the wake of the September 11 attacks, US President George W. Bush delivered an ultimatum to the Taliban government of Afghanistan to turn over Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda leaders operating in the country or face attack. The Taliban demanded evidence of Bin Ladens link to the September 11 attacks and, if such evidence warranted a trial, they offered to handle such a trial in an Islamic Court. The US refused to provide any evidence. Subsequently, in October 2001, US forces along with UK and coalition allies invaded Afghanistan to oust the Taliban regime. On October 7, 2001, the official invasion began with British and US forces conducting air strike campaigns. Kabul, the capital city of Afghanistan, fell by mid-November. The remaining al-Qaeda and Taliban remnants fell back to the rugged mountains of Eastern Afghanistan, mainly Tora Bora. In December, the US and her allies fought within that region. Its believed that Osama bin-Laden escaped into Pakistan duri ng the battle. In March 2002, the United States and other NATO and non-NATO forces launched Operation Anaconda in the hopes that theyll destroy any remaining al-Qaeda and Taliban forces in the Shahi-Kot Valley and Arma Mountains of Afghanistan. The Taliban suffered heavy casualties and evacuated the region. The Taliban regrouped in Western Pakistan and began to unleash an insurgent-style offensive against the United States and her allies in late 2002. Formation of Civialian Government After Operation Enduring Freedom, Mujahideen loyal to the Northern Alliance and many other groups mustered support for a new government in Afghanistan. In December 2001, political leaders gathered in Germany to agree on new leadership structures for Afghanistan. Under the Bonn Agreement, an interim Transitional Administration was formed and Hamid Karzai was named the Chairman of a 29-member governing committee. On 13 June 2002, the Loya Jirga, appointed Karzai as the Interim President of the Afghan Transitional Administration.[28] The former members of the Northern Alliance remained extremely influential in the new dispensation. Hamid Karzai won the 2004 presidential election, and became President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. He defeated 22 opponents and become the first democratically elected leader of Afghanistan. Although his campaigning was limited due to fears of violence, elections passed without any significant incident in spite of a surge of insurgent activity.] 6. After Karzai was installed into power, his actual authority outside the capital city of Kabul was said to be so limited that he was often derided as the Mayor of Kabul. The situation was particularly delicate since Karzai and his administration had not been equipped either financially or politically to influence reforms outside of the region around the capital city of Kabul. Other areas, particularly the more remote ones, were historically under the influence of various local leaders. Karzai started making attempts to negotiate and form amicable alliances with them for the benefit of Afghanistan as a whole, instead of aggressively fighting them and risking an uprising. CHAPTER III BEGINNING OF CHAOS Americas Miscalculation President Bush, speaking at the Virginia Military Institute in the spring of 2002, proposed a Marshall Plan for Afghanistan and its neighbours that added up to state-building on a regional scale. But the post 9-11 Pentagon long stuck with a narrow, or sharp focus on wiping out Al Qaeda and the Taliban, with a corresponding under-focus on long-term development. Other agencies of the US Government struggled to advance their programs with little coordination either with the Pentagon or with one other, and with much micro-managing by e-mail from offices in Washington. But even had the Pentagon gotten it right or the other agencies been better coordinated, the program would still not have worked, for US policy (and UN policy as well) suffered from a birth defect. When the US finally toppled the Taliban, Tajiks from the Northern Alliance took control of Kabul. In a winner-take-all move, they immediately packed the government with their own supporters and relatives, to the exclusion both of Pashtuns, the largest group in the population, and minority Shia Hazaras. Eager to sidestep all dissension, the UNs Bonn meetings in December, 2001, ratified this dangerous status quo, while the Emergency Loya Jirga, held in June, 2002, then ratified the Bonn conferences mistakes. While U.S. officials talked bravely of working the situation, Northern Alliance leaders in Kabul effectively consolidated their hold on power. Marshall Fahim, confirmed in Bonn as Afghanistans Minister of Defense, kept his own militia lodged in the capital and cut personal deals with like-minded warlords elsewhere, greatly complicating the task of building a national army. Worse, he and his family seized control of key markets and other assets to create their own income stream, independent of Karzai and the Americans. Many Pashtuns, as they watched this unfold and noted their fellow-Pashtun Karzais inability to counteract it, went into a sullen opposition. A few resorted to armed opposition. Since most Taliban leaders had been Pashtun, this gave the appearance of a Taliban revival. In fact, it was worse, a new movement of Pashtuns and other groups aggrieved over having been excluded from the post-Taliban order. Because the US backed Karzai, they blamed their own marginaliza tion on America. This bitter mood gave rise to a new opposition and new insecurity. Charged with rooting out remnants of Al Qaeda and the Taliban, the US worked with whatever forces were at hand, including warlords, postponing to a later phase the achievement of balance within the Kabul government and the consolidation of state institutions. Light Footprint. Afghanistan was the least resourced of any American led nation building operation. There are 1.5 international soldiers for every 1000 persons in Afghanistan compared to 20.5 per 1000 in Kosovo, 19 in Bosnia, 10 in Sierra Leone and nearly 4 in Haiti. Post conflict stabilization operations require more troops and longer time than to win the initial fight. In fighting, firepower and technology enable smaller, more agile forces to prevail. But in post conflict stabilization and reconstruction, there is a need for more ground troops, money and time. Low levels of investment in military power and economic assistance in post conflict reconstruction lead to a low level of security, ineffective governance and poor economic growth. From the outset, two contradictory concepts drove international intervention in Afghanistan. The country was described as the major front of a global war on terror, yet the intervention was light footprint engagement. This light footprint continued to impair every aspect of reconstruction of Afghanistan .Taliban was removed from power, but neither their potential to return nor their external support was addressed. The focus on accomplishing short term security goals undermined the efforts at establishing positive long term trends. Mis governance The general opinion in Afghanistan is that the insurgency is rising because the people have lost faith in government. The security forces have failed to protect local villages and the institutions struggle to deliver basic services. The patience of people with government is breaking down and it in turn is favouring the return of Taliban. The afghan government had difficulty providing essential services to the population, especially in rural areas of the country. As per a World Bank report, the main beneficiary of assistance was the urban elite. This triggered deep seated frustration and resentment among rural population. The government suffered a number of systematic problems and had difficulty attracting and retaining skilled professionals with management and administrative experience. Due to lack of investment and poor maintenance only 6% of the population received electricity. Most efforts were to supply electricity to the urban areas and not to the rural areas which were falling to Taliban. The Afghan government faced challenges providing security outside of the capital. A major reason was the poor state of the Afghan national police. The result was weak security apparatus that could not establish monopoly of the legitimate use of force within the country. The police was not an international priority after the overthrow of the Taliban regime and they received significantly less money and attention than the army. The Afghan police was needed to help establish order in urban and rural areas, but they were heavily out gunned by the insurgent. The police force was plagued with corruption and lacked semblance of a national police force. Pakistani Dimension Pakistan has played a very strong role in Afghanistan in the last three decades, unfortunately, it has been a very negative role. With the fall of Taliban in Afghanistan, Pakistan lost its political clout in that country but it retained its links with the Taliban and actively assisted insurgency in Afghanistan It was only due to intense pressure from America that Pakistan reluctantly agreed to stop aid to Taliban. However, as it became clear later that Pakistan was not committed to end terror. Pakistan decided to hold talks with the militant leaders in Swat and offered to stop all military actions against them. This further fuelled insurgency in Afghanistan and increased attacks on US and NATO forces. Revival of Taliban Almost five years after the defeat of Taliban regime, there was a resurgence of Taliban in 2006. Their return could be divided into three stages through which the group gradually gained momentum especially at the last stage that started in 2006. The first stage, from 2002 to 2003, had a relatively tangible lull. However, there were some small bombings from time to time. In 2003, the Mullah Mohamed Omar launched a new Jihad council comprising of ten military leaders of Taliban. The group could achieve this essential military restructuring cashing in on the US shift of focus towards Iraq. The second stage, from 2004 to 2005, witnessed a number of remarkable activities and developments in tactics of fighting, types of weapons, and the groups deployment in several areas.The Taliban started to carry out some military operations in daylight and managed to fully control some remote areas of south Afghanistan.The third stage, from 2006 to 2007, marked the overwhelming return of the Taliban. The year 2006 was the bloodiest one since the fall of the Taliban, as more than 4, 000 were killed, including one third of civilians. The British-American council for media security reported in a comparison between the years 2005 and 2006 that there was an increase in the attacks on the NATO forces from 900 in 2005 to 2500 attacks in 2006. One of the major achievements of the Taliban in this period of time was that they managed to run peoples affairs in some southern areas establishing a good network and friendly relationships with the residents of the south. Taliban Strategy. Analysts pointed out that Taliban had established a two pronged strategy in Afghanistan. First to re establish its authority over the southern provinces around its former headquarters in Kandahar and second to destabilize a ring of provinces around Kabul. CHAPTER IV US EXIT POLICY AND LIKELY FUTURE SECURITY SCENARIOS Af-Pak Policy On 23 January,2009, American President Mr Obama announced his Af-Pak policy wherein he stressed that his administration was committed in refocusing attention and resources on Afghanistan. The salient features of his policy were: Appointment of special envoy Mr Richard Holbrooke to Pakistan and Afghanistan to help lead US effort to forge and implement strategic and sustainable approach to the region. Pakistan told to destroy the safe heavens for Al-Qaeda and Taliban in the tribal areas bordering Afghanistan. Deployment of 17,000 additional troops in Afghanistan to improve security situation. The American President had laid out a very bold and responsible policy to counter the resurgent Taliban insurgency in Af-Pak region. However, within a short span of one and half years the American policy has undergone a complete change with President himself laying down the withdrawal plan of ISAF( International Security Assistance Force) and the Secretary of State , Mrs Hillary Clinton stressing the need to reintegrate the insurgents in the political mainstream of Afghanistan. This dramatic turnabout of American plans regards Afghanistan is due to various factors, American Losses. The American or the NATO losses have been increasing and with every passing year the Taliban is becoming stronger and stronger. Even though more and more troops have been deployed and more money pumped in but still the attacks on the ISAF are only increasing. The Taliban tactics have now graduated to frontal attacks on US outposts. US Goals in Afghanistanà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.There is a profound confusion in America regarding what US goals in Afghanistan ought to be and what the means for resolving those goals should be? The debate is on whether US should focus narrowly on issues of counter terrorism or should they focus on counter terrorism and counter insurgency. It is also being debated whether US should really be engaged in business of state building or can workaround by negotiating with adversaries, the Taliban. These debates in domestic politics are turning against an extended and continuing commitment to Afghanistan. Crisis of Resolution The allies are tired of the Afghan commitment, because they do not understand how the struggle that is going on, in this far away land has an impact on their own security. The urgency that the world felt on 12 September 2001 has weakened with the passage of time. Afghanistan seems too hard, too complex, and too difficult and as the legend goes would continue to be the graveyard of empires. If this is true than why should we and the international community continue to make commitments to a war that by some iron laws of history is ultimately destined to end up in defeat? (d) Crisis of Resources. America is investing heavily in Afghanistan. There is no gainsaying the fact that the commitments to Afghanistan and Pakistan are costly to the US. In 2010, America has committed $65 billion to Afghanistan. If we take into account the aid to Pakistan, the total comes to $85 billion, these are not small commitments. If the lives of troops, wastage of equipment and wear and tear on forces that have been engaged in this theatre are taken into consideration especially at a time when America is in economic crisis itself and the entire world community is struggling with the global crisis, the cost is phenomenal. Many NATO countries are focused on these costs and argue that a way must be found for a quick exit from Afghanistan. This has made the job of US President more difficult. Choices for America The International community and especially America faces two choices for Afghanistan. The first is to invest and endure in Afghanistan and the second is to improve conditions, in order to exit. These are the two strategic choices that US has to contemplate as it talks about the way ahead, as each strategy has a different consequence. Invest and Endure. If US have to carry out this option, then they have to build consensus domestically and internationally on the enduring importance of Afghanistan. All members of international coalition have to commit to the resources required i.e. military, economic and diplomatic institution. This option of invest and endure cannot simply be a military campaign. It has to be an effort to re-constitute societies by changing the counter-insurgency strategy and focusing more on protecting population and minimising collateral damage. Improve and Exit. In case America and other NATO countries decide to improve the conditions in order to exit they will have to adopt a different strategy. The ideological adversaries will not have to be defeated but only kept at bay for sometime inorder to improve conditions. The investments in the institutions, social welfare and democracy would be minimum. Americans have started to realize that military solution is far difficult to achieve as compared to a political solution. They have started saying for quite some time that they want re-conciliation and talks with Taliban if they can lay down their arms. There have been covert contacts with certain Taliban elements, however, it has not produce any results till now. Even President Karzai has realized the precarious state of ISAF and have himself started wooing the Taliban so that his government can last even after the International forces withdraw. . So without clear success how long will American stay? NATO and Afghanistan have recently agreed to fix 2014 as the deadline for troops withdrawal from Afghanistan in a phased manner. They have also clarified that troops can stay in support role even beyond 2014. However, mounting coalition deaths, growing domestic pressure in NATO countries and the increasing differences between Karzai and the west may change the situation. Also, any major military debacle like, a US post being overrun by Taliban or an air crash with significant casualties may immediately catalyze opposition to war. Even the 2012 Presidential elections may require early troop withdrawal in the there is no clear sign of success. Likely Future Scenarios The debate on likely security scenarios emerging in the region post withdrawal of ISAF is gaining momentum in India. Many analysts have generated three plausible scenarios which are likely to emerge post withdrawal of ISAF from Afghanistan. (a) Scenario 1 US withdrawal or draw down of forces Return of the Taliban It is pointed out that in case of a complete US withdrawal, the probability of return of Taliban is not farfetched, thereby condemning Afghanistan to what US analysts describe as the worst case scenario. This would also lead to an emboldening of the Al Qaeda, instability spreading to Pakistan and Central Asia, thus reducing the region to become a base for Al Qaeda operations. (b) Scenario 2- US limited engagement-proxy warà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ The most probable scenario beyond 2014 is the reduced US presence in Afghanistan with troops limited to protecting key cities, a shift from overstretched counterinsurgency operations to internal defence. This would allow Pakistan to continue its hedging strategy whereby it will continue supporting the Afghan Taliban to destabilise Afghanistan with the eventual goal of reinstating a pliant regime. Scenario 3- US long term commitments -Building on Afghan state. According to the analysts, this is the best case scenario for Afghanistan, though such a state of affairs is highly unlikely given the reduced public support for the Afghan war in the United States. This would call for additional resources including troops to train and partner with Afghan forces and continuation of the institution building programmes. In this scenario, India could play a long term role in the training of the Afghan national institutions, institutional building political, and security and justice sector reforms. CHAPTER V GEO STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF AFGHANISTAN When Allah had made the rest of the world, He saw there was a lot of rubbish left over, bits and pieces and things that did not fit anywhere else. He collected them all together and threw them down on the earth. That was Afghanistan. An old Afghan Saying Geographical Location Afghanistan is a land locked country with Iran to its west, Pakistan to its south and east, China to its north east and the newly independent states of Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan to its north. Afghanistan covers an area of 245, 000 square miles and is surrounded by two nuclear states, China and Pakistan, a threshold nuclear state, Iran and having three other nuclear powers in its near vicinity, India, Kazakhstan and Russia. This places Afghanistan in a difficult situation with its neighbours as well other regional and non regional powers vying to get a foothold in the country to spread their influence in the region and the subcontinent. It is also the land bridge between South Asia and Central Asia and possibly to Iran as well. Safe Sanctuary for Islamic Fundamentalism Apart from being the land bridge to central Asia, Afghanistan has been a home to the fundamentalist of various hues and colours ranging from the Jihadis from Kashmir to the Uighur separatists. Afghanistan certainly provided a suitable launch pad for such activities in Central Asia, more so when the Taliban was at the helm of affairs. Taliban played host to Al Qaida and its leader Osama Bin Laden The strengthening of links between militant organisations like IMU (Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan), Al Qaida, the Chechen rebels, Uighur separatists and the Taliban, further compounded the security situation in the region. Energy Resources in Afghanistan In terms of natural resources, Soviets had estimated Afghanistans proven and probable gas reserves at up to five trillion cubic feet. However, the production has been affected by years of war, and new reserves are yet to be located due to lack of any serious exploration having been carried out for the last 30 yrs or so due to the prevailing situation. The northern areas adjoining Central Asia have proven reserves of natural gas estimated at 100 billion cubic meters, the Jar Quduk oil and gas complex being a case in point. Afghanistan also has an estimated coal reserve of up to 400 million tons located between Herat and Badakhshan. However, due to the situation in Afghanistan, the production has remained low and unless serious efforts are made in the near future, Afghanistan will continue to play its historical role of serving more as a transit route for others than as an exporter of its own resources. Oil and Gas Pipelinesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.The Central Asian republics hold the key to large resources of energy i.e oil and gas. The landlocked nature of these states imposes inherent constraints in unravell

Sunday, January 19, 2020

The Role of Naturalism and Rationalism in American and British Gun Poli

Although they may not be aware of it, complex philosophic principles influence the simple actions of the mass’s everyday lives. In fact, long lasting and well defined contentions of basic philosophy concerning the actions of human beings has not only affected individuals, but also entire countries. Some of the greatest nations on Earth have been formed around key thoughts and opinions of several great philosophers. Primarily amongst these, however, or John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, both of whom wrote on â€Å"The State of Nature†, or the state of absolute freedom. While Locke and Hobbes had vastly different opinions on the natural state of a human being, no matter who you are your life is somehow affected by their philosophic writings. As previously stated, nations often base themselves and thusly their common laws off the chosen philosophy of the country. For instance, in the United States of America, police officers carry guns. In Great Britain, however, officers are banned from carrying extremely harmful weapons such as firearms and instead carry the classic truncheon. To the average citizen of each of these countries, the policy that their law enforcement adheres to makes perfect and logical sense, while the opposite country’s policy seems to be either dangerous and overly violent or as overly merciful. However, the reason as to why these two sibling nations differ so greatly comes down to one simple thing: the gun policy imposed on American officers are different from those used in Britain because of conflicting common philosophic beliefs found in both of the countries, where America takes on a naturalistic, believing that humans are inherently evil, viewpoint and Britain sports a rather rationali stic, where in which hum... ...ere is no need to use such extreme non-reversible and almost brutal violence on individuals which they believe can return to society. These two differing philosophic principles are the primary reason as to why the two countries differ. Whether the creators of these two countries intended for the principles of the 15th century philosophers to shape their respective nations or not, it is an undeniable fact that they obviously did and that Locke and Hobbes became two of the most influential philosophers in this way. Despite the contrasting opinions, however, it is clear to see that the philosophies on the State of Nature play an important role in forming the opinions of a country’s citizens by directly affecting their law. Be it gun laws or general culture and way of life, the theories of Naturalism and Rationalism are undeniably the basis of any nation.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

To Be a Californian

Every day, thousands of people migrate to different sectors of the globe, to capitalize opportunity or pursue better lifestyles for themselves. California is one such state, which prides itself in being able to accommodate diverse populations and cultures. Like many stipulated theories. Immigrants chose the land to Inhabit based on the desire to acquire better living standards for themselves. Immigrants that arrive in California for instance seek the warm natural scenery provided by the state, the freedom to live whichever way they deem fit, the available bob resources, and the willingness to dream and achieve one's dreams.Those who aspire to be Californian are told that there are deferent methods to do this. The promises linked with being Californian leaves them with the desire to migrate and gain the new life promised to them. On closer examination, it becomes apparent that the concept of being Californian is linked to Individuals that have the freedom to live their lives as they p lease, work hard to achieve their dreams, and be tolerant of diversity. Nevertheless, any concept that goes against this remiss may lead to failure of not becoming a â€Å"real† Californian.To support this discussion, an examination of Denies Sponsor's â€Å"A new Perspective on the Dream,† Quays â€Å"Interviews† together with support from the survey result on Californian identity, will show that individuals' that desire to live a free life, are tolerant of diversity, and aspire to achieve their dreams qualify to be â€Å"real† Californians. Excerpts from Sponsor's article gives the illumination that a â€Å"real† Californian is a person that lives freely and enjoys every aspect of life. Spooned (2008, p. 2) gives an illustration of how people migrated from Iowa so that they could get away from the Judgment surrounding the community. In the post war era, California presented an area where one could run away from sexism, racism, and self-freedom. T he essence that surrounds freedom is the desire to escape imprisonment or slavery offered within the society. It is also the desire to give an individual's TO BE A CALIFORNIAN 3 family new opportunity to experience realities that one may have missed. Therefore, they choose to migrate to California since they experience a lack of advancement or retardation in their current environment.As I conduct some interviews with some of the individuals in the region, one respondent retorted that he migrated to be free from poverty. This is a similar story to the one given by Spooned, which talks about a young girl who experiences a sense of freedom through her uncle's migratory nature. It is evident through this story that freedom is acquired through progression areas may ring restriction into how much an individual can progress, California offers a place to gain new insight into freedom and its splendor.Spooned continues and says that when many people hear of the wonderful life in California, they cannot help, but find ways to get there (spooned 2008). This is a clear indication of the sense of peace and freedom experienced within the state. An essential component of being a â€Å"real† Californian is taking risks as a way of achieving one's dreams or combating one's problems. Many people are deprived of the splendid essentials that life has to offer, and so grow up hoping to create better lives than they had.This is evident in an interview of Cruz Reynolds as presented by Quay Cruz grew up in an age where many Mexicans experience segregation, but through his efforts, he was able to acquire equality for his school members of Mexican descent. Cruz, like many immigrants, had a desire to live better lives than their parents or make better lives for future generations. Sometimes, however, this implies sacrificing one's time to struggle for the things that are essential or meaningful in their lives.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Ivancevich et al (2008) - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3274 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Sociology Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? INTRODUCTION A group is defined by Ivancevich et al (2008) as â€Å"two or more individuals interacting with each other to accomplish a common goal†. Groups are important aspect of work pattern of an organization (Mullins 2002) and a part of modern life (Ivancevich et al 2008). A group can be formal or informal (Armstrong 2009). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Ivancevich et al (2008)" essay for you Create order Informal groups according to Newstrom (2007:277) â€Å"Are established by the organization and have a public identity and goal to achieve while formal groups emerge on the sense of common interest, proximity and friendship†. Informal groups are set up by the organization in other to achieve organizational goals while formal groups are set up by individuals for the purpose of satisfying the needs of its members (Armstrong 2009). The group used for the purpose of this study is the formal groups. This study will analyze the impact the group has on the individual, factors affecting the behavior of the individual, human relations theory and the factors affecting the behavior and performance of the individual in the group. IMPACT OF THE GROUP ON THE INDIVIDUAL The performance of a group depends on how well its members engage in communication with each other or interacts with each other and also on how the individual learns in the group (Mullins 2002). Mullins (2002:465) argues that â€Å"how people behave and perform as members of a group is as important as their behavior or performance as individuals†. Usually, lack of interaction between the individual and members of the group will have effect on the performance of the group as well as the individual in the group and result to lack of satisfaction for the individual (Mullins 2002). It is believed that the group generates better ideas than the individual does, by drawing resources from individual members of the group (brainstorming), the group thereby brings in more ideas and input into decision process than a single person can (Robbins 2001). In one of my experiences in a group I learnt that groups can be rewarding to the individual because an individual can actually learn fr om other members of the group. I joined a decoration group in my church and we were told to decorate the church for a program, we all had our ideas on how we want the decoration to look like but instead of pursuing personal goals we brought our ideas together and we came up with a better idea and I also learnt things I did not know before, also I found the experience challenging because I had to think beyond what I know in other to be able to contribute but at the end I left with more knowledge than I went in with. It is also believed; however, that group ideas can hinder creative thinking, in other words, individuals will ignore their idea in other to conform to the idea of the group (Mullins 2002). For example, as a member of a group of four in one of my classes in Salford University, we were asked to solve a particular question, we were different people with different beliefs, attitudes, perception, culture and behavior, however, three out of four were in agreement but one par ticular person in the group had a different idea from what the rest of us had and was trying so hard to convince us which was impossible because it was one against three, in other to avoid conflict the individual had to ignore the idea and agree with that of the group. Groups bind the individual and members of the group in togetherness and in other to be in togetherness, individuals have to see themselves as members of the group and not isolate themselves in other for them to achieve the goal of the group and also to meet their needs (Robbins 2001). Huczynski and Buchanan (2007) discussed the work of Tayfel and Tunner (1986) who argued that â€Å"as long as individuals see themselves as more important than the group the group cannot function effectively†. However, It is believed that individuals have different needs or reasons for joining or been in a group and it can be the need to fulfill social needs, achieve group goals or to derive greater economic benefits or for soc ial security reasons, which is believed that groups can serve as a medium of meeting these needs of the individual (Ivancevich et al 2008) and in other to remain a member of the group and to meet these needs the individual must set aside their personal goal to achieve the groups goal ( Newstrom 2007). FACTORS AFFECTING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR There are different types of ways of explaining the behavior of the individual in a group; they are Perception, Attribution, Orientation, Role and branded rationality (Armstrong 2009). Perception is one way of explaining the behavior of an individual in a group. Perception according to Maund (2001: pg 444) is â€Å"the process by which individuals interpret sensory impression so that they can assign meaning to it†. Perception is when an individual gives meaning or interprets the things happening around them and people tend to perceive situation that satisfies needs, emotions, attitudes or their self concept (Ivancevich et al 2008). Members of a group can see the same thing or be in the same situation but their interpretation of the situation will be different from each other based on how they see it (Mullins 2007). Attribution according to Luthans (2002:197) refers to â€Å"how people explains the cause of anothers or their behavior†. Attribution can be the way people interpret the situation they are in (Armstrong 2009). Attribution can lead to conflict in a group because the way one person see things (perception) may not be the same way another sees the same thing (Armstrong 2009). While Orientation can be said to be an individuals attempt to make sense of life which can be different from that of the group (Armstrong 2009). Role is the part played by the individual in caring out their duties (Armstrong 2009). There is a particular role expected from the members of the group once they have lived to the expectation of the role then it is believed they have performed their role successfully and it is believed that this role shapes the individuals behavior (Armstrong 2009). While branded rationality can be said to be the ways individuals understands how complicated the situation they are in is and their reaction to the situation limits the way they behave rationally (Armstrong 2009). Huczynski and Buchanan (2005:279) discuss the work of Marion Hampton (1999)who argues that â€Å"groups are seen as taking over the individuals mind, depressing intelligence, eliminating moral responsibility and forcing conformity, they can cause their members a great deal of suffering and despair and can perpetuate acts of cruelty†. There are various factors affecting the individual in the group, But before explaining that we are going to analyze a theory that explains what effect a group has on the individual. HAWTHORNES THEORY (Human relations approach) The theory that explains the effect of groups on the individuals behavior and performance is the Hawthorne experiment of the human relations theory written by Elton Moyo (Mullins 2002). The experiment is called the bank wiring observation room experiment; the experiment was carried out on 14 men who were organized into three subgroups which contained three wires, a supervisor and an inspector that moved around the group (Moorhead and Griffin 1995). After the study there were two major findings; 1) The level of interaction that was observed among the men showed the existence of informal groups within the three groups and, 2) It was also revealed that these groups develop norms or rules that guides behavior and also set structures to enforce the rules (Moorhead and Griffin 1995) The hawthorns researcher found that the group established a level of output for its members (Mullins 2002). They found out that the group did not produce up to what they are capable of producing; the y produced below their capability which had effect on their earning because their output was low(Moor head and Griffin 1995). The group produced a specific level of output for its members which are the only accepted level of production, in other to be accepted the individual has to slow down production when getting close to the accepted level of production in other not to over produce (Moorhead and Griffin 1995). Moorhead and Griffin (1995) discuss the work of Roethlisberger and Dickson (1939) who points out that â€Å"The social organization of the bank wiremen performed a twofold function which is to protect the group from internal indiscretions and to protect the group from outside interference†. Moorhead and Griffin (1995) also points out that almost all the activities carried out by the group can be said to be a means of controlling the behavior of its members. The research shows that peer pressure has more effect on the individual than things that may encourage the i ndividual and forces of control or orders from management, individuals would rather do things required by the group than doing things that would encourage or reward their actions (Mullins 2002). This theory shows how working in a group can be both challenging an rewarding for the individuals which leads us to the factors affecting the performance and behavior of the individual in the group. FACTORS AFFECTING THE INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE IN THE GROUP Group norms Norms according to Greenberg and Baron (2008) can be defined as â€Å"the generally agreed upon informal rules that guides the behavior of the members in a group†. Norms influence group behavior and refer to what should be done and also represents value judgment and appropriate behavior in social situations (Psyblog 2010). Norms are of great importance to groups in controlling behavior and in measuring performance (Hanh 2007). Groups have norms that are set to guide members behavior (Greenberg and Baron 2008) and also to reduce ambiguity in terms of behavior that are of importance to the group (Rollinson 2005). Norms are set up in groups which the individual must conform with and groups have ways of making the individual conform to such norms (Rollinson 2005). Norms keeps the group functioning as a system instead of as a collection of individuals and members of the group come together to achieve a common goal instead of pursing individual groups (Hanh 2007). Groups do not se t rules or norm for every situation but only set rules for situations that are of importance to the members of the group which could be in relation to their job or how they communicate with each other or with others outside the group (Hanh 2007). Group norms makes life predictable, individuals know what is expected of them, know their roles and how much time to spend in the execution of their job, know the values and beliefs and the image of the group, and subscribe to the norms of the group (Rollinson 2005). Norms are usually assessed to know if group members are interacting with each other which can be rewarding and which gives the individuals a sense of belonging (Heathfield 2010). Group members come together to develop the group norms which gives the individual a feeling of belonging, sense of identity and feelings of security because they were part of the making of the rules (Brooks 2005). Norms are believed to be of importance because some members may harm the project or th e success of the group with their behavior or action unintentionally but if there is agreed upon framework of interaction, misunderstandings and negative conflicts in the group can be prevented (Heathfield 2010). However, group norms can have negative effect on the individual (Armstrong 2009). According to Psyblog (2010) who argues that â€Å"groups rarely come up with great ideas because the individual in them are powerfully shaped by group norms and the rules of what people are and how they must behave† it is believed that changes are hard to spot unless they are carefully measured, individuals deny their own beliefs, ideas and senses just to conform with the groups even if they are wrong (Psyblog 2010).it is believed that, Norms serves as a form of constraint to the individuals, it hinders them from thinking freely because they would not want to think outside the group norms or the groups way of doing things, individuals can not pursue their personal goal, can not see t hings from their point of view because it might clash with the goals of the group (Psyblog 2010). Social Support Social support according to Dalgard (2009) is â€Å"receiving help from other people when in need of help†. An individual can receive support among groups of people who have a similar problem to what they have and in their relationship with others be it their family or friends (Curtis 2009). Curtis (2009) argues that† if you have a support network you will not feel as alone; you will learn new ways to deal with your problem and may try harder to overcome it†. Group members can serve as as a source of support, advice and encouragement to an individual facing any difficulty and also the individual can be a source of support to the group (Curtis 2009). Individuals in a group can benefit from the members of the group while members who are not part of the group cannot enjoy such benefits, having friends to talk with, to gain insight from, to listen to during times of need or borrow money from, all this are forms of support (Scott 2007). Social support makes the ind ividual safe and gives them a feeling of being loved and cared for (Rollinson 2005). In one of my experience when I was writing my final dissertation for my bachelor degree, I wrote on the societal support for the elderly people in my community and I had the privilege working with the elderly people in that community and I found out that most of them lack social support from their family and friends, in other to feel loved, feel secure or have a feeling that they belong they had to join a group with the believe that the group would be able to meet their needs. Peer Pressure Peer pressure is another factor that has effect on the behavior of the individual in the group. Peer pressure is when other people impose pressure on a person (Nemours 2010). Peers have influence over others, by listening to other people a person learns from them and they also learn from the individual (Nemours 2010). Some individuals usually join groups in other to fit in, so in other to fit in the individual goes along with the idea of the group and sets aside their idea and go along with the groups idea to avoid being bullied by the other members of the group (Nemours 2010). However, peer pressure can have a positive impact on the individual because it can push the individual into doing the things they have no courage of doing or talking the individual out of doing things thats not in their best interest (Wilmer 2010). Individual Accountability Individual accountability can be defined as â€Å"an obligation or willingness to accept responsibility or to account for ones action† (McDaniel 2007). Individual accountability is a foundational component as it evaluates an individual core competence, strength and weaknesses (McDaniel 2007). Its the individual taking responsibility for their action in carrying out their duty or them being accountable for their duties (McDaniel 2007). The individual must be accountable for achieving its goal and for its contribution to the group, individual accountability occurs when performance is assessed and the result are given back to the group and the individual in other to ascertain who needs more support, encouragement and assistance (Cooperate learning center 2009). Accountability is not to punish mistake or to generate immediate result but to ensure the individual gives all their best in the achievement of goals and behaving responsible to one another (Luthans 2002). By empowering them over job performance and then holding them accountable for the outcomes (Newstrom 2007). Conflict Rollinson (2005:401) defines conflict as â€Å"the behavior of an individual or a group when purposely sets to block or inhibit another group or individual from achieving its goals†. Competition is one of the main causes of conflict in a group, when the members of a group are in competition against each other it can lead to conflicting interest (Rollonson 2005). Some groups encourage competition because they believe that when members of the group compete against each other it will result to successful performance or quick performance but mostly it might lead to conflict (Rollinson 2005). However, Vodosek (2007) argues that â€Å"Researchers have noted that high level of task conflict can lead to reduced member satisfaction and commitment to the group† Individual have different interest, skills, personality and attributes which may act as cohesion or a clash in the group (Brooks 2009). Some individuals tend to work towards achieving personal goals by doing so they t end to ignore the goals of the group and focus more on achieving their personal goals which might lead to conflict in the group (Newstrom 2007). CONCLUSION It can be assumed that, groups have both positive and negative effect on the individual, and for the individual, being a member of a group can be rewarding as well as challenging as working alone. Working alone as an individual might lead to a quick decision making but working in a group can lead to a more effective decision making, because it is a group of people with different ideas, perception, attributes and behavior coming together to form the group (Rollinson 2001), also the individual can also learn from the other members of the group. However, it is believed that there is no ideal individual for a particular job, that no individual can have all the necessary qualities needed for a job but a group of individuals can, and when they come together with their different qualities it can lead to a successful decision making (Antony Jay, cited by Mullins 2002). REFERENCES 1. Armstrong, M. (2009) Armstrongs Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 9th edn, Kogan Page, London. 2. Brooks, I. (2009) Organizational Behavior: Individual, Groups and Organisation, 4th edn, Prentice Hall, Harlow. 3. Cooperative Learning Center (2009) â€Å"Cooperative Learning† [Accessed 10/03/2010]. 4. Curtis, J. (2010) â€Å"Support groups and social support† [Accessed 11/03/2010]. 5. Dalgard, O.S. (2009) â€Å"Social Support: Definition and Scope† [15/03/2010]. 6. Elizabeth Scott, M.S (2007) â€Å"Social Support: The Hows and Whys of Cultivating a circle of friends† Guide [11/03/2010].s 7. Greenberg, J., Baron, R.A. (2008) Behavior in Organizations, 9th edn, Pearson Education, New Jersey. 8. Hahn, M. (2007) â€Å"Group norms in organizations† [15/03/2010]. 9. Heathfield, S.M. (2010) â€Å"How to develop group norms† Guide [15/03/2010]. 10. Huczynski, A. A., Buchanan, D.A. (2007) Organizational Behavior, 6th edn, Prentice Hall, Harlow. 11. Ivancevich, J M, Konopaske, R, Matteson, M T (2008) Organizational Behavior and Management, 8th edn, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Newyork. 12. Luthans, L. (2002) Organizational Behavior, 9th edn, McGraw-Hill, Newyork. 13. Maund, L. (2001) Introduction to Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice, Palgrove, London. 14. McDaniel, D. (2007) â€Å"How Important is Individual Accountability† [Accessed 10/03 /2010] 15. Moorhead, G. Griffin, R.W. (1995) Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizationa, 4th edn, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 16. Mullins, L. J. (2002) Management and Organizational Behavior, 6th edn, Pearson, Harlow 17. Nemours (2010) â€Å"Dealing with peer pressure† [13/03/2010] 18. Newstrom, J. W. (2007) Organizational Behavior: Human Behavior at Work, 12th edn, McGraw-Hill, Newyork. 19. Psyblog (2010) â€Å"Why group norms kill creativity,† [Accessed 11/03/2010]. 20. Robbins, S.P (2001) Organizational Behavior, 9th edn, Prentice Hall, New Jersey 21. Rollinson, D. (2005) Organisational Behaviour Analysis: An integrated Approach, 3rd edn, Pearson Education, Harlow. 22. Vodosek, M. (2007) Intergroup conflict as a mediator between cultural diversity and work group, International J ournal of Conflict Management, Volume 18, Issue 4 23. Wilmer, D. (2010) â€Å"The difference between negative and positive peer pressure† Guide [Accessed 23/03/2010].

Thursday, December 26, 2019

History And Perceptions Of American Sign Language Essay

History and Perceptions of American Sign Language Sign language is one most common ways for deaf individuals to communicate without using of their voices. Different cultures and languages will typically have their own version of sign language so signs are not always universal, just like gestures are not universal. Signs are culturally bound in communication just like verbal languages and gestures are culturally bound. I will examine the history of American Sign Language, as well as how it has been viewed culturally with positive and negative social implications in the U.S. History of American Sign Language In order to fully understand the creation of American Sign Language (ASL), it must be understood that it is a form of communication. That means every sign has a meaning that is culturally bound just like languages in oral communication. That also means that the language has a distinctive origin. In fact, ASL carries â€Å"several linguistic features that are similar to spoken languages† (Rosen, 2008) such as the presence of homonyms and its constant evolution (Shaw Delaporte, 2011). The unique concept about ASL, though, is that it actually has very strong ties and connections with the French Sign Language, also known as LFS. This connection is explained by Delaporte Shaw (2009) and Shaw Delaporte (2011) as being due to how ASL was formalized in the U.S. by Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet with the help of a deaf French professor named Laurent Clerc who used LSF. Because â€Å"LFSShow MoreRelatedDeaf Perceptions Of The Deaf1510 Words   |  7 PagesDeaf Perceptions of Animacy Deaf culture has long been misunderstood and misrepresented within America, in part due to the significant language barrier between the American Deaf and their hearing counterparts. 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Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Captain Preston’s Trial Accounts - 773 Words

Since the 1960s, considerable disagreements between North American colonists and British soldiers derived in the so called â€Å"Boston Massacre† because of imposed laws by the British Empire into the colonies. After this conflict that took place on March 5, 1770, Captain Thomas Preston was charged with murder. The event occurred as a response of a series of violent encounters between the two groups. Curiously, Capt. Preston trial was delayed until October 24 in order to calm down witnesses’ exasperations. However, the witnesses who declared in the trial gave controversial and questionable testimonies; as a result, it creates indeterminate conditions to make a valid verdict. Among the allegations, Capt. Presto stood between the infuriated town and soldiers; for that reason, it was not clear if the order to shoot was given and if it was, the order came from behind the soldiers. After considering all declarations there were not sufficient evidences to condemn Capt. Pre sto because British soldiers acted in self-defense. Therefore, my decision for the case is that Capt. Preston was not guilty of giving the order to fire. Several conflicts between the colonist and soldiers ended in the Boston Massacre which resulted as a response to some laws imposed in the colonies from the British Empire. Examples of these laws were: the stamp act in perpetuity, which was repelled after colonists’ protests; the Townshend Revenue Act, which add new taxes to goods like sugar, tea, glass, etc.; andShow MoreRelatedBoston Massacre Essay Outline1164 Words   |  5 Pagesof The Boston Massacre began with a few colonists throwing snowballs at a soldier outside the Custom House in Boston, Massachusetts. (Text, 155) The argument began to escalate as more colonists gathered. Captain Thomas Preston arrived with a number of soldiers to maintain order. 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When Captain Thomas Preston heard of Private White’s situation, he came with seven other soldiers to help. Words escalated into snowballs and stones, and the soldiers began to fight back with the butts of their guns. The crowd of Bostonians was growing and nowRead MoreA Massacre or a Riot? Essay1536 Words   |  7 PagesMassacre is viewed with overwhelming bias and many contradictions in accounts exist, yet overall the â€Å"Boston Massacre† is better defined as a riot than an actual massacre. The Soldiers were provoked to fire upon the crowd, and the actual scope of the provocation could be much greater than many of the Patriotic witnesses testified. Many contradictions exist in the evidence, and without proper proof one must assume the Soldiers and the Captain to be innocent until proven guilty. In the days and weeks leadingRead MoreBoston Massacre vs. Kent State Shootings3432 Words   |  14 Pagesevents all built up to the final climax in each of the two situations. 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With the tensions continuing to rise between the colonists and the British, despite the efforts from both sides to settle things down, some of the more patriotic and more enraged groups of people, like the Sons of Liberty, confronted the troops GarrisonedRead MoreContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words   |  846 Pagesalso reflective of a wider tradition of significant involvement in the practical sphere by senior British accounting academics. For we must remember that it was Professor Edward Stamp who was one of the first to call the British audit profession to account with his questioning of ‘who shall audit the auditors?’ The subsequent institutional response has most likely gained as much from the likes of Professors Harold Edey, Bryan Carsberg, Ken Peasnell, Geoffrey Whittington, and  ´ David Tweedie as it has